VARIOUS TYPES OF FISH POND – FISH CULTURE SYSTEMS AND DESIGNS
What are the major types of fish pond construction? Fish rearing involves the acquisition and raising of different types fish for either personal or commercial purposes. When it is done commercially, fish farming can be a very good source of income as people will always need to buy fish, especially those in the food industry.
If you want to be a fish farmer, you have to consider things like a proper land space, the type of fish you want to raise, a water supply source like borehole, and construction of the fish ponds.
In this article, the focus is on the different types of fish pond. I am going to elaborate on the different types as well as discuss their upsides and downsides, so you will find it easy to choose the best type of fish pond for your farming.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF FISH POND
Factors like convenience, purpose of fish rearing, and the scale of production go a long way in determining the type of fish pond you will construct for your farm. While there are other types, the ones I will talk about here are;
- Earthen fish pond
- Plastic tank fish pond
- Fibreglass tank fish pond
- Concrete fish pond
- Cage tank fish pond
- Synthetic leather fish pond
EARTHEN FISH POND
This type of fish pond is also called natural pond because it can only be constructed in a place where there is enough clay soil and a flowing underground water. A swampy environment is the most fitting for an earthen fish pond.
Digging of the pond can be done manually or with the use of an excavator. The pond usually has a depth of 1.5 meters with the water reaching about 1.2 meters. Some of the soil is used to build a boundary around the earthen pond to serve as protection from flood during rainy season.
Advantages of the Earthen Pond
- It is not expensive to construct
- It can contain a large number of fish
- The fishes are bred in an environment similar to their natural habitat
- The growth rate of fish is fast
Disadvantages of Earthen Fish Pond
- There is poor security
- It is susceptible to flooding
- Fishes might escape to the flowing water if anything happens to the pond boundary.
PLASTIC TANK FISH POND
As the name implies, this type of fish pond involves breeding of fish in a tank made of plastic or rubber. You can easily buy if from the manufacturers who produce them in different sizes.
Advantages of Plastic Fish Pond
- There is no burden of a manual labour construction
- This pond is very easy to maintain
- It can be used indoors
- It is easy to move the pond around
Disadvantages of Plastic Fish Pond
- Overcrowding of fishes
- Water management (periodic change of water) is difficult.
FIBREGLASS TANK FISH POND
This is a transparent tank which has a special use; it is meant for breeding fingerlings at a particular temperature before they can be moved to the outdoor tanks.
Advantages of Fibreglass Tank Fish Pond
- They can be moved around with ease
- Fishes can be monitored at a glance
Disadvantages of Fibreglass Tank Fish Pond
- They can only be used for fingerlings
- They cannot contain huge amount of fish.
CONCRETE FISH POND
This type of pond is made of concrete and is very popular in fish farming. It is not a simple pond and the construction is very complicated. If you want to use a concrete fish pond, made sure it is built by professional Civil/Construction Engineers to prevent a disaster in your farm.
Advantages of Concrete Fish Pond
- It cannot be flooded
- It is easy to keep predators away from the fishes
- The activities of the fishes can be easily monitored
- It can be used for a long time without needing any major maintenance
Disadvantages of Concrete Fish Pond
- Construction costs a lot of money
- There is a higher than normal pH in the first few years
CAGE TANK FISH POND
These fish ponds can only exist in a riverine area. They take the form of an enclosed cage, after constructing these ponds, they are placed inside fresh water and to feed the fishes, you will need to use a canoe or boat to move from cage to cage within a large body of water.
Advantages of Cage Tank Fish Pond
- The fishes are in their natural habitat
- Fishes grow rapidly
- A very large amount of fishes can be raised with this type of pond
- Oxygen is always available
Disadvantages of Cage Tank Fish Pond
- You must take a boat trip before you can monitor the activities of the fishes.
- The construction process is cumbersome
- If there happens to be water pollution, all fishes will be lost at once.
SYNTHETIC LEATHER FISH POND
This pond takes the same process as the earthen pond I first explained, the difference is in the rubber material used to line the pond walls to prevent water seepage.
Advantages of Synthetic Leather Fish Build
- Wastage of water is reduced
- It is easy to build
Disadvantages of Synthetic Leather Fish Pond
- The fish pond is susceptible to the hazards of flooding.
The above are types of fish pond you may find anywhere in the world.
• EARTHEN PONDS
• CONCRETE PONDS
• MOBILE FISH POND SYSTEMS
• CAGE AND PEN CULTURE SYSTEMS
What are the Different Types of Fish Farming Pond
Fish farming has become very popular across the world with both large-scale a small-scale farmers being actively involved. Fish farming has grown in acceptance due to the dwindling fish reserves in the oceans, rivers, and lakes which are their natural habitats. This is largely due to overfishing or water pollution. The types of fish ponds form an important part of our discussion in this article because the creation of artificial fish habitats is widely practiced across the world.
This article seeks to discuss the various types of fish ponds and their general characteristics. Let’s begin with the following;
The Earthen Fish Pond
This is the closest to a natural fish habitat. The construction of the earthen fish pond requires first digging the pond, which in most cases requires a depth of up to 1.5 metres. A levee or dyke is built using the dugout soil from the earthen pond. This serves as a form of embankment against increasing water levels. This type of fish pond is best suited for areas where there is availability of natural water as well as clay soil.
- Key Characteristics and Advantages
This type of fish pond is considerably cheap to construct and manage. There is also the added advantage of being able to hold a large stock of fish. The earthen fish pond provides fish a natural habitat to thrive in, as well as an ideal environment for growth which produces high quality stock.
There are disadvantages associated with the earthen fish pond. This comes in the form of security. It requires adequate security such as the construction of a wall around the pond to ward off unwanted predators/persons. Also, in the case where a proper job is not done in constructing the dyke, it may give in to flood.
The Concrete Fish Pond
This is one of the common types of fish ponds which are widely used by fish farmers. As the name suggests, the concrete fish pond is built using cement and blocks. Concrete fish ponds come in variants constructed to specific purposes. These include; the water re-circulatory pond, the stagnant pond as well as the free flow concrete pond. Let’s briefly discuss these types of fish ponds.
The Water Re-Circulatory Pond
Here, the name gives a hint of what this is about. This type of concrete fish pond is constructed in a way to ensure the efficient use of water. The used water is not thrown away but simply emptied out into a reservoir where it undergoes treatment and is then re-used.
- Advantage of this Type of Fish Pond
A major advantage of the water re-circulator fish pond is that it offers the most efficient water usage, a higher dissolved oxygen percentage as well as a balanced PH level.
As efficient as it is, the water re-circulatory fish pond has a downside. This reflects in the cost of construction which is quite substantial. Building this type of fish pond requires a considerable financial commitment. This is in addition to its high maintenance cost.
The Stagnant Pond
This is one of the cheapest types of fish pond to construct. This is because by nature of its construction, it does not require water to be frequently changed, but is only changed when the water really requires a change. The water here is stagnant and only removed through the aid of a water pump.
The advantage of the stagnant pond is that it is among the cheapest types of fish ponds to construct. Its mode of operation is quite basic and requires little to no technical knowledge.
The disadvantage of the stagnant pond is that the water condition for the fish is not optimal. Also, it has a much reduced rate of dissolved oxygen in the water. This and other factors affect the growth of the fish. The stagnant pond does not support large-scale farming.
The Free-Flow Pond (Concrete)
This type of fish pond allows for the continuous flow of fresh water into the fish pond which creates a favourable breeding environment for the fish. The free flow of water is however regulated to ensure stability. To make this possible, a drainage or flow-out channel is constructed for effective release of water.
Among the types of fish pond, this is one of the most efficient due to its provision of optimal breeding conditions which include the abundance of water, thus eliminating adverse conditions relating to the inadequacy of fresh water such as an insufficient amount of dissolved oxygen in the water.
The disadvantage of the free-flow pond type is that it requires a sufficient reservoir of water for maximum results. This means that for this type of fish pond to be fully functional, it must be sited in areas where there is sufficient supply of water.
PVC Fish Ponds
These types of fish ponds are made from PVC material and are moveable. These usually have open tops, and are reinforced by metal supports or stilts placed around the PVC tank. A downside to the use of PVC fish ponds is that they are not ideal for commercial fish farming as their holding capacity is limited.
Cage tanks are an effective way of rearing fish. These cages are constructed and placed within natural habitats such as rivers or streams. They are fastened by stilts/pegs which hold the cages in place. To feed the fish, a canoe is used to reach all the cages. This type of fish pond has the advantage of having a low setup cost.
There you have them! These are some of the types of fish ponds and their various ways of operation. For maximum benefit, it is important to identify the type of fish pond best suited for your purposes. Making the right choice can significantly impact the growth rate and quality of your fish stock.