Simple Ration Formulation With Pearson Square Method
How do you use the Pearson Square for feed formulation? Also called the Box method, feed formulation using the Pearson Square method is one of the simplest feed formulation techniques available. This method focuses on the Digestible Crude Protein (DCP) as the most basic feed nutritional requirement. This method is mainly designed for simple feed rations, and to get maximum benefit from using the Pearson Square method, following its specific use guide is necessary to achieving desired results.
The Pearson Square Method
As shown in the diagram above, the number in the middle represents the nutritional requirement (nutrient requirement) of the animal you wish you formulate feed for. This may either be amino acids, crude protein, vitamins or minerals. But how do we get the middle number which is the nutritional requirement? To determine this number, a publication from the National Research Council contains all the nutrient requirements for each animal species. This should be referred to.
Using the Pearson Square Method
Feed formulation using the Pearson Square method requires following the detailed guidelines that follow. The top and bottom left hand corners of the square bear the feeds being considered as well as crude protein. To get the right ration, the formula used in calculating this starts with subtracting the nutritional requirement which is represented by the number in the middle from numbers on the left of the square.
The summary of which is top left – middle = bottom right; bottom left – middle = top right. This is repeated for both of the feeds. All the negative numbers to the right of the square are disregarded and only the difference existing between the nutrient requirement and the nutrient value of the ingredient is considered. The resulting answers arrived at to the right are the parts to include in the ration. After this step, the sum of the feed parts is taken to arrive at the total.
Required Information for Using Pearson Square
The usage of the Pearson Square method for feed formulation requires certain key information. Some of these include a list of all the nutrient requirements, the type of ration which requires formulation, as well as a comprehensive list of all available feeds. The feed ratio calculation is very important; the above must be properly done in order to get desired results.
The List of Nutrient Requirements
The list of nutrient requirements is normally obtained from standard nutrient requirement tables. However, we may have a particular formulation requirement, and if this does not align with what is obtainable in the standard nutrient requirement table, then modification is necessary to achieve our purpose. Normally, feed rations for animals like goats and sheep constitute vital nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, energy, and protein. It is therefore important that before using the Pearson Square method, these should be present.
The Type of Ration
The nutrient content of a feed ration largely depends on the type of ration which needs to be formulated and also the formulation process or procedure. Using the sheep and goat feed example again, roughage normally constitutes the base feed. Therefore, we would require that certain nutrients are added to supplement the roughage. There are instances where either a finishing concentrate would need to be mixed to a feed supplement or a complete feed would need to be formulated.
The List of All Available Feeds
There are situations where the source of nutrient may come from several feed sources. In such situations, it becomes necessary to prioritized using the most economic sources of these nutrients as well as the most relatively suitable. If there is an analytical data of feed composition, this would be preferable. However, in the absence of this, other sources of information such as an appropriate feed composition table should be used. In order to find out if a feed constitutes an economical source of nutrients, it is necessary to estimate the unit cost the most required nutrients. In calculating the unit cost, storage, transport and the processing cost should be factored in your calculations.
Advantages of Using the Pearson Square Method
The Pearson Square method of poultry feed formulation has enormous benefits, as it offers and easy and fast method where two mixtures or feeds which differ in their nutrient concentrations can be easily blended into the desired mixture having the right or balanced concentration. The Pearson Square method is widely used in feed mixing situations where high protein and high energy feeds are mixed. However, the Pearson Square method is not only restricted to the mixture of 2 feeds, as it can also be used in the mixture of 3 or more feeds.
The Pearson Square method is most effective two ingredients are mixed. This is because by default, it is designed to mix two ingredients. However, this can be used beyond the mixing of just two ingredients.
Poultry and fish feed formulation using Pearson Square Method requires using exact or known quantities for feeds or nutrients we expect to mix. This has proved to be a very effective way of mixing feeds over the years, and still continues to be widely used as it is easy to use once all the operational parameters are followed.