Formulation of Fish Feed using Ingredients from Plant Sources

Fish is highly nutritive and rich source of animal proteins. For the improvement of fisheries and to achieve maximum yields from resources of fresh water, it is necessary to provide artificial feed, by which fish grows rapidly and attains maximum weight in shortest possible time. Among commonly used feed ingredients, fish meal is considered to be the best ingredients, due to its compatibility with the protein requirement of fish (Alam et al. 1996). Replacement of fish meal with cheaper ingredients of plant origin in fish feed is necessary because of rising cost and uncertain availability of fish meal. Inclusion of feedstuffs with relatively high levels of carbohydrate in formulated fish feed is preferred in view of its protein-sparing action that may make the diet more cost effective. According to Rumsey (1993), increased use of plant protein supplements in fish feed can reduce the cost of fish meal. The research has focused on utilizing less expensive and readily available resources to replace fish meal, without reducing the nutritional quality of feed.

The apparent digestibility of protein, energy and individual amino acids are of prime consideration as the basis for feed formulation in fish, with information gained for different raw materials, such as plant by-products commonly utilized in the feed manufacturing industry. Numerous investigations have been applied to variety of fish species for several decades with digestibility data obtained for most nutrients.

For commercial culture of fish, the formulation of low-cost balanced diet using locally available agro-industry byproducts is needed. Recently fish meal has become the most expensive protein ingredient in aquaculture feeds. Many studies have shown considerable success in partially replacing fishmeal with soybean meal and other soybean products in diet for various fish species (Boonyaratpalin and Tunpibal 1998, Quartararo et al. 1998, Hernadez et al 2007).

Preparation of feed
Soybean meal (80gm) was taken in powder form as principal ingredients. Other ingredients like milk powder (60gm), corn flour (20gm), and eggs (70gm) were added and mixed well. Agar powder (4gm) was added as binding agent; turmeric (0.5gm) and garlic (1gm) as antibiotics. The said mixture was boiled, cooled at room temperature. After cooling cod liver oil

The nutritional importance of ingredients used:

Soybean meal

Soybean meal has been the most frequently studied dietary ingredient as a fish meal replacer in diets for many fish species because of its high protein content, relatively well balanced amino acid profiles, reasonable price and steady supply (Storebakken et al. 2000). Together oil and protein content account for about 60% of dry soybean by weight; protein at 40% and oil at 20%. The remainder consists of 35% carbohydrate and about 5% ash (USDA).
Nutritional value of soybean/ 100gms
Carbohydrate: 30.16gm, Sugars: 7.33gm, Dietary Fiber: 9.3gm, Fat: 19.94gm, Protein: 36.49gm., energy: 450Kcal, (USDA).

Milk powder
In present feed formulation Nestle milk powder was used. It contains 20 standard amino acids. It is rich in soluble vitamins A, D and minerals. According to USAID the typical average nutrient in the un-reconstituted milk are 36% proteins, 52% carbohydrates, particularly lactose and calcium 1.3%.
Nutritional value of milk powder/ 100gms

Protein: 20.5 gm, Carbohydrates: 52.7gm, Fats: 19gm Saturated Fatty Acids: 10.9 gms, Cholesterol: 0.05 gm, Mono Unsaturated Fatty Acid: 4.21gm, Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid: 0.41. Partly skimmed milk along with sucrose is the ingredient present in used milk powder (USAID-2004).

Egg albumin was taken. It contains 15% of proteins dissolved in water. It contains about 40 different types of proteins. It has high nutritive value. The proteins in egg white are, ovalbumin: 64%, ovatranseferin: 12%, ovomucoid: 11%, ovamucin: 1.5%, globulin: 8%, lysosymes: 3.5% (USDA, 2008).

Corn flour

Corn flour was used as filler and binder in present formulation. It contains proteins: 3gms, carbohydrates: 23gms and fat: 1gm. The major ingredients were maize and starch. Starch acts as additive in food processing. It has 110 calories per gm (USDA-2008).

Cod liver oil

Cod liver oil is derived from the liver of cod fish Gadus callarias. The main ingredients are maize and starch. Starch act as additive in food processing. It has a mild fishy taste and smell. It contains small amount of fish protein (Aviram et al., 1986). It is a good source of the vitamins A and D, as both the vitamins are nutritionally important to body. Cod liver oil along with vitamin E prevents the body from increasing oxidant stress. It also reduces the tendency of blood forming clot. It helps to reduce generation of free radicals in body. It has been used in form of a gelatin coated capsule named as Sea cod. Each single soft gelatin capsule contains 300mg of cod liver oil.

Agar powder

Agar powder used as binding agent. It helps to form a unique mass of the feed. It is a polymer made up of subunits of sugar galactose. It is also act as an emulsifying and suspending agent in many food products.

Vitamin mixture

Vitamin B and E were used as vitamin mixture in equal proportions.
Vitamin B complex
Each capsule of vitamin B complex composed of Thiamine mononitrite, vitamin B2, B6, B12, Nicotinamide, folic acid, biotin and Titanium dioxide. It promotes activity of enzymes. It plays an important role in cell growth and metabolism. Vitamin B is an essential nutrient for the growth, development and some other bodily functions.

Vitamin E

Each soft gelatin capsule contains Tocopherol acetate of about 400mg. It acts as an antioxidant. It protects the body against the free radicals, which are potentially damaging byproducts of energy metabolism. DL-X Tocopherol acetate is the form used while formulation.

Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa)
It was added as, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective. It functions as an antioxidant & adjuctant in feed preparation. Turmeric used to protect the food from sunlight. (Shrinivasan and Satya Narayan 1987). It adds warm, mild aroma and distinctive yellow color to the feed. It is also the hypolipidemic.

Nutritional value of turmeric /10 gms.
Protein: 8.6%, Carbohydrates: 63.0%, Fat: 8.9%, Fiber: 6.9%, Total ash: 6.9%, Moisture: 5.8%, Calcium: 6.2% and, Iron: 0.05%. The caloric value is 390 calories per 100gm. It also contains 5% essential oil, and 3% Curcumin which is a polyphenol (Sharma et al. 2006). Garlic paste It is used as antibiotic and antibacterial properties (Anonymous 2002). It inhibits the growth of bacteria, hence having antibacterial property.

Nutritional value of garlic/ 100 g
Moisture: 62.8%, Protein: 6.3%, Carbohydrates: 29%, Fiber: 0.8%, Total fat: 0.1%, Total ash: 1.0%, Calcium: 0.03%, Phosphorus: 0.31% Iron: 0.001%, Vitamin C: 13mg and Nicotinic acid: 0.4mg. The caloric value is 142 per 100gm. Pepper powder It was used as a stimulant for appetite. In India it is used in number of health problems (Dorman and Deans 2000). Pepper has two main components volatile oil and pungent component commonly known as pipperine. Black pipers contains 0.6 to 2.6% essential oil nutritionally pepper contains Vitamins A, B and C. Cumin powder (Cuminum cyminum) Research in animals indicates that it stimulate the secretion of pancreatic enzymes, important factors in nutrient digestion and assimilation.

Nutritional value of cumin/ 100gms

Carbohydrates 44.24gm, proteins 17.819gm, fats 1.535, dietary fibers 10.5gm, iron 66.36mg, sodium 168mg, zinc 4.8mg, calcium 931mg ,vitamins such as A 64mg, thiamine B1 0.628mg ,riboflavin B2 0.327mg, niacin B3 4.579mg, foliate B9 10mg, vitamin C 7.7mg and E 3.38mg (USDA, 2008).

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